Academic research

Lee, J., Lee, Y., & Lee, Y. J. (2012). Do customization programs of e-commerce companies lead to better relationship with consumers?. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 11(3), 262-274.



The purpose of this study is to propose a model that explains the consumers’ perception of customization in e-commerce. This study suggests two determinants of consumer attitude toward the e-commerce website with customization options: perceived participation and perceived company responsiveness. Consumer attitude was posited to influence consumers’ intention to consider a long-term relationship with an e-commerce company. In this model, two consumer characteristics—consumer expertise and preference stability—were considered as moderators of the relations between consumers’ perception of participation and company’s responsiveness and consumer attitude toward the customization program. The model was tested by structural equation modeling (SEM) using AMOS 14.0, and the posited relations were confirmed. The moderating effect of preference stability was found significant. The perceived participation level of those with a more stable preference influenced their attitude toward the customization experience, while the company’s responsiveness was influential only for those with a less stable preference.


Keywords : Customization, Consumer expertise, Preference stability, Consumer-firm relationship quality, Apparel

Chung, K., Youn, C., & Lee, Y. (2014). The Influence of Luxury Brands’ Cross-Border Acquisition on Consumer Brand Perception. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 32(4), 219–234.



With global recession and growing international competition among brands, cross-border acquisitions (CBAs) are increasing in the luxury industry. Since country-of-origin (COO) plays a large role in a luxury brand’s image, a CBA that changes the nationality of the company owning the luxury brand and modifies consumer COO knowledge can influence consumer brand perception. This study explores the influence of a luxury brand’s CBA on perceived brand value and the moderation effect of brand loyalty. In the case of a CBA by a company associated with a superior country image, only perceptions of low-loyalty consumers are affected positively by the CBA information. In the case of a CBA by a company associated with an inferior country image, only perceptions of high-loyalty consumers are affected negatively by the CBA information. The result of this study provides a deep understanding of how consumer brand perception is influenced by the changes of brand-country association.

Keywords: brand loyalty, brand value, luxury brand, country of origin, M&A, cross-border acquisition

Youn, C., Kim, S, Lee, Y, Choo, H.J., Jang, S., & Jang, J.I. (2017). Measuring Retailers' Sustainable Development. Business Strategy and the Environment, 26(3), 385-398.



This study aimed to develop a framework and measurement items for retailers to assess sustainability while avoiding potential subjectivity by combining top-down and bottom-up approaches, and verifying their validity based on consumer perceptions of sustainable retailing. The framework consisted of 54 measurement items categorized into a three-order hierarchical model. At the top level of the model, there were three third-order dimensions respectively related to consumers, retailers, and society. At the middle level, eight second-order sub-dimensions associated with retailing mix were classified into the aforementioned third-order dimensions. At the bottom level, there were 21 first-order sub-dimensions related to the sustainable retailing activities. The development of sustainability assessment by combining top-down and bottom-up approaches and including consumer perceptions will allow retailers to assess their sustainability more strategically, as it will reduce the subjectivity and increase consumers' recognition of sustainable retailing. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.


This study investigates the manner in which corporate philanthropy affects consumer patronage toward a brand. In so doing, we propose reciprocity as a key mechanism, which manifests the effect of corporate philanthropy on patronage behavior, and examine how vicarious licensing and strategic fit would mitigate the relationship between reciprocity and patronage behavior. The results indicate that reciprocity significantly increases one’s intention to participate in the philanthropic activities that a company supports and the intention to purchase its products. Vicarious licensing is found to lessen the effects of reciprocity on participation intention and purchasing intention. Strategic fit strengthens the path from participation intention to purchasing intention.            

Park, S., Choi, YJ*., & Lee, Y. (2019).Understanding fashion communication between Korean middle‐aged mothers and daughters. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 43(1), 58-67. https://DOI: 10.1111/ijcs.12483


Daughters can be considered important social role models for middle‐aged mothers in fashion communication such as the clothing purchase or conformity. This study explores antecedents (trust in daughters as fashion informants and internalized social pressure for appearance management) and outcomes (solidarity between mother and daughter, psychological well‐being of mother) of fashion communication (mother–daughter shopping, clothing conformity) between middle‐aged mothers and daughters. The data were collected using a self‐administered online survey of 307 middle‐aged Korean women between ages of 45 and 65. The result shows that mothers’ trust in daughters as fashion informants and internalized social pressure for appearance positively influence mother–daughter shopping and mothers’ clothing conformity to daughters. Next, mother–daughter shopping and mothers’ clothing conformity have a positive influence on the solidarity of mothers and daughters. When solidarity becomes stronger, the degree of the mothers’ psychological well‐being increases.

Ha Youn Kim & Yuri Lee* (2019): The Effect of Online Customization on Consumers’ Happiness and Purchase Intention and the Mediating Roles of Autonomy, Competence, and Pride of Authorship, International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, DOI:10.1080/10447318.2019.1658375



Advanced information communication technology and production technologies such as 3D printing have enhanced consumers' personalized experiences. Customization as one of the noticeable personalization is attracting attention to both consumers and companies because of its significant leverage on transformation of production-consumption paradigm. This study aims to identify the effect of online customization experiences on consumers' happiness and behavioral intention. The findings suggest that customization experiences have a positive effect on happiness, and autonomy, competence, and pride of authorship play a mediating role between the two variables. In addition, happiness has a positive effect on purchase intention, and an indirect effect of happiness between online customization experience

and purchase intention was found. This study suggests that creative activities via computers can bring happiness to consumers and increase purchase intention. Therefore, practitioners need to consider maximizing autonomy, competence, and pride of authorship to enhance consumers' happiness and purchase intention when consumers interact with computers.

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